||the Sanskrit term for the "semi-vowels": y, r, l, v. These are formed by combination of i, RRi, LLi and u, respectively with the vowel a. The word literally means "stand between."
||perception, understanding, experience; knowledge derived from personal observation. Intuition as (opposed to reasoning - yukti).
||knowledge gained by means of the pramANa-s.
||grace; literally showing favor or kindness, conferring benefits.
||inference (in logic); one of the 6 means of obtaining knowledge. See pramana.
||in the Sanskrit language: sounded through the nose, nasal.
||non-perception, non-recognition; one of the 6 means of obtaining knowledge. See pramana.
||(Sanskrit language) This literally means "after sound." It is represented as aM but is not actually a letter and does not occur on its own. It changes the sound of a letter, causing the associated vowel to be sounded through the nose. In ITRANS, it is represented by M or .n and in Romanised transliteration by a dot, above or below the preceding consonant. The precise nature of the sound is determined by the consonant that follows. It will take on the sound of the anunAsika in the same group as this consonant. e.g. in saMdhi, the sound will be that of n while in shaMkara, it will be that of ~N.
||a method in logic for determining the truth of something. For example, is the clay or the pot real? anvaya establishes the logical connection that "when the potis, the clayis." vyatireka establishes the logical discontinuity that "when the potis not, the clayis." Therefore the clay is satya, the pot is mithyA. anvaya means "connection, association"; vyatireka means "distinction, separateness, exclusion."
||falsely, erroneously; otherwise.
||mutual dependence in a "cause-effect" situation such as the chicken and egg example.
||water - one of the five elements or pa~nchabhUta. Associated with taste.
||one of the five "vital airs," relating to excretion. More generally refers to rejection of irrelevant material gained from perception etc. and to the formation of limited views.
||1) inferior, lower (opposite of para) but may also be2) having nothing beyond or after; having no rival orsuperior.Context will hopefully clarify which meaning to use!
||renouncing of all possessions. One of the five yama-s in Raja yoga.
||immediate (relating to gaining of knowledge, i.e. does not require application of reason).
||one of the works attributed to Shankara. The word means "knowledge acquired directly by one of the valid pramANa-s."
||literally "not coming from men"; used to refer to the shruti - scriptural texts passed on verbatim from generation to generation since their original observation by realised sages. See shruti.
||denial, refutation, contradiction. See adhyAropa-apavAda for teaching method of advaita.
||immeasurable, unlimited, unfathomable. (E.g. that 'I know that I exist' is aprameya - I do not need any pramANa to tell me this.)
||inseparable; together with, collectively.
||something reported by another in whom one has faith. Literally "a correct sentence." Apta means "respected, trustworthy"; vAkya means "statement, declaration."
||literally "beginning, commencement" but encountered in the context of a material cause in which the effect is clearly distinguishable from its cause but has not actually been transformed, e.g. cloth made from cotton as opposed to butter made from milk.
||the theory that the world (i.e. universe) is the result of the coming together of atoms.
||a class of religious or philosophical writings closely connected with the brAhmaNa-s and so-called because they were written or studied in the forest.
||acquisition of wealth. One of the four puruShArtha-s. See purushartha.