Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
antaHsthA - artha

flower picture

Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
antasta antaHsthA ANt>Swa the Sanskrit term for the "semi-vowels": y, r, l, v. These are formed by combination of i, RRi, LLi and u, respectively with the vowel a. The word literally means "stand between."
anubhava anubhava AnuÉv perception, understanding, experience; knowledge derived from personal observation. Intuition as (opposed to reasoning - yukti).
anubhuti anubhUti AnuÉUit knowledge gained by means of the pramANa-s.
anugraha anugraha Anu¢h grace; literally showing favor or kindness, conferring benefits.
anumAna anumAna Anuman inference (in logic); one of the 6 means of obtaining knowledge. See pramana.
anunasika anunAsika Anunaisk in the Sanskrit language: sounded through the nose, nasal.
anupalabdhi anupalabdhi AnupliBx non-perception, non-recognition; one of the 6 means of obtaining knowledge. See pramana.
anusvara anusvAra AnuSvar (Sanskrit language) This literally means "after sound." It is represented as aM but is not actually a letter and does not occur on its own. It changes the sound of a letter, causing the associated vowel to be sounded through the nose. In ITRANS, it is represented by M or .n and in Romanised transliteration by a dot, above or below the preceding consonant. The precise nature of the sound is determined by the consonant that follows. It will take on the sound of the anunAsika in the same group as this consonant. e.g. in saMdhi, the sound will be that of n while in shaMkara, it will be that of ~N.
anvaya-vyatireka anvaya vyatireka ANvy Vyitrek a method in logic for determining the truth of something. For example, is the clay or the pot real? anvaya establishes the logical connection that "when the potis, the clayis." vyatireka establishes the logical discontinuity that "when the potis not, the clayis." Therefore the clay is satya, the pot is mithyA. anvaya means "connection, association"; vyatireka means "distinction, separateness, exclusion."
anyata anyathA ANywa falsely, erroneously; otherwise.
anyonya ashyraya anyonya ashyraya ANyaeNy AZy!ry mutual dependence in a "cause-effect" situation such as the chicken and egg example.
ap ap Ap! water - one of the five elements or pa~nchabhUta. Associated with taste.
apana apana Apn one of the five "vital airs," relating to excretion. More generally refers to rejection of irrelevant material gained from perception etc. and to the formation of limited views.
apara apara Apr 1) inferior, lower (opposite of para) but may also be2) having nothing beyond or after; having no rival orsuperior.Context will hopefully clarify which meaning to use!
aparigraha aparigraha Apir¢h renouncing of all possessions. One of the five yama-s in Raja yoga.
aparoksha aparokSha Aprae] immediate (relating to gaining of knowledge, i.e. does not require application of reason).
aparokshanubhuti apArokShAnubhUti Aparae]anuÉUit one of the works attributed to Shankara. The word means "knowledge acquired directly by one of the valid pramANa-s."
apaurusheya apauruSheya ApaEé;ey literally "not coming from men"; used to refer to the shruti - scriptural texts passed on verbatim from generation to generation since their original observation by realised sages. See shruti.
apavada apavAda Apvad denial, refutation, contradiction. See adhyAropa-apavAda for teaching method of advaita.
aprameya aprameya Aàmey immeasurable, unlimited, unfathomable. (E.g. that 'I know that I exist' is aprameya - I do not need any pramANa to tell me this.)
apritak apRRithak  Ap&wkœ inseparable; together with, collectively.
apta-vakya Apta vAkya AaÝ vaKy something reported by another in whom one has faith. Literally "a correct sentence." Apta means "respected, trustworthy"; vAkya means "statement, declaration."
arambha Arambha AarMÉ literally "beginning, commencement" but encountered in the context of a material cause in which the effect is clearly distinguishable from its cause but has not actually been transformed, e.g. cloth made from cotton as opposed to butter made from milk.
arambha vada Arambha vAda AarMÉ vad the theory that the world (i.e. universe) is the result of the coming together of atoms.
arankyaka AraNkyaka Aar{yk a class of religious or philosophical writings closely connected with the brAhmaNa-s and so-called because they were written or studied in the forest.
artha artha AwR acquisition of wealth. One of the four puruShArtha-s. See purushartha.
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012