||consciousness, universal soul or spirit.
||literally "circle" or "wheel"; one of the points in the spine through which energy is supposed to flow in kundalini yoga.
||one of the major Upanishads. See Upanishad.
||materialist philosopher, and the system named after him.
||four-step, four-part etc.
||the fourfold pre-requisites specified by Shankara as needed by a seeker before he can achieve Self-realisation. chatuShTaya means "fourfold"; sampatti means success or accomplishment. See sadhana, vairagya, viveka, mumukshutvam.
||consciousness, intelligence etc.
||false appearance or reflection (AbhAsa) of consciousness (chit) - i.e. the ego.
||thinking or reflecting upon; consideration.
||pure thought or Consciousness. See ananda, sat, satchidananda.
||the organ (part) of mind responsible for memory. See antakarana, ahankara, buddhi, manas.
||goal motivated, impelled or incited.
||the offering that is made at a sacrifice or the collection of those offerings. guru dAkShiNa is the payment made by a student to his teacher on completion of his studies (not in money but usually as a task or special gift).
||right (as opposed to left); south, southern; straightforward, candid, sincere. guru dakShiNa is the fee, present, gift or donation made to the guru from the disciple for teaching.
||self-restraint but understood as control over the senses; one of the six qualities that form part of Shankara's chatushtaya sampatti. See chatushtaya sampatti, shamAdi shhaTka sampatti.
||audience or meeting (with a guru); viewpoint; one of the six classical Indian philosophical systems (purvamimamsa, uttaramimamsa, nyaya, vaisheshika, samkhya, yoga).
||person, individual, outward form or appearance (body).
||a guide (someone familiar with a place); more specifically, a spiritual teacher or guru.
||(pl. noun) the gods; (adj.) heavenly, divine.
||fellow, common noun for "man" used in philosophy; literally "god-given."
||the script used in Sanskrit representation. The word literally means "city of the Gods" (deva - gods; nAgara - belonging or relating to a town or city).
||concentration of the mind. The sixth step of Raja yoga.
||customary practice, conduct, duty, justice and morality. One of the four puruShArtha-s. The favored meaning of most traditional teachers is, however, "nature, character, essential quality," which they often translate as "essence." Our own dharma (svadharma) is what we ought to do with our lives in order to dissolve our accumulation of saMskAra. See sanskara, karma.
||a just or righteous king (dharma + rAja); any king or prince.
||meditation, usually in the sense of the mechanical act using a mantra as opposed to nididhyAsana.
||light, lamp, lantern. In the advaita bodha dIpika, it provides the 'knowledge of advaita' through its illumination.
||a long vowel in Sanskrit (sounded for 2 mAtrA-s or measures); literally long, high, tall.
||defect, fault; offence, transgression; harm.
||"Discrimination between the Seer and the Seen" - a work attributed to Shankara. dRRik is the seer or perceiver and dRRishya that which is seen or which can be objectified.
||the end or aim of what is seen, example or instance.
||the theory that our mistaken view of the world arises from a mental image (based on memory and sense data) superimposed upon the reality. dRRiShTi means "seeing"; sRRiShTi means "creation"; vAda means "thesis" or "doctrine." See also adhyasa, ajati, srishti-drishti-vada.
||pain, sorrow, trouble.
||duality, philosophy of dualism; belief that God and the atman are separate entities. Madhva is the scholar most often associated with this philosophy.
||two things; twofold nature; dualistic.