Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
eka - Ishvara

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Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
eka eka @k one, alone, single, solitary, the same, identical. As opposed to nAnA - differently, variously, distinctly, separately; or (used as an adjective) different, distinct from.
ekagra ekAgra @ka¢ one-pointed, fixing one's attention on one point. ekAgratA - intentness in the pursuit of one object.
eva eva @v just so, indeed, truly; most frequently used to strengthen the meaning of the associated word - exactly, same, even, only etc.
gandha gandha gNx smell (one of the tanmAtra-s or five subtle senses).
Gaudapada gauDapAda gaEfpad The author of the commentary (kArikA) on the Mandukya Upanishad. He is said to have been the teacher of Shankara's teacher. See karika, Mandukya, Upanishad.
ghana ghana "n compact mass or substance.
gita gItA gIta a sacred song or poem but more usually refers to philosophical or religious doctrines in verse form (gIta means "sung"). The most famous are the Bhagavad Gita and Astavakra Gita. If the word is used on its own, it will be referring to the former. See Bhagavad, Astavakra.
gocara gochara gaecr (literally) perceptible by the senses but also regarded as seen by the mind, inferred etc..
grahana grahaNa ¢h[ literally seizing, catching etc; perceiving, understanding, comprehension;  agrahaNa means non-comprehension or non-perception.
grantha grantha ¢Nw tying, binding; knot -Ramana Maharshi referred to the 'knot' in the heart that must be 'untied' in order for realization to occur. It also refers to a verse composition or treatise.
grihasta gRRihastha g&hSw this is the second stage of the traditional Hindu spiritual path, called the period of the householder, in which the Brahman performs the duties of master of the house and father of a family. See also brahmacharya, grihasta, sanyasa, vanaprastha.
guna guNa gu[ According to classical sAMkhya pholosophy, creation is made up of three "qualities," sattva, rajas and tamas. Everything - matter, thoughts, feelings - is "made up of" these three in varying degrees and it is the relative proportions that determine the nature of the thing in question. See sattwa, rajas and tamas for more details.
guru guru gué literally "heavy"; used to refer to one's elders or a person of reverence but more commonly in the West to indicate one's spiritual teacher.
halanta halanta hlNt a consonant that is not sounded with a vowel after it. It is marked as such by the use of a virAma. The term derives from the pratyAhAra "hal," which refers to "any consonant," and anta, which means "end," since such consonants normally occur at the end of a word.
hani hAni hain abandonment, relinquishment; damage, loss; insufficiency. E.g. an advaita hAni is a statement that is against the fundamental tenets of advaita and, if true, would mean that advaita was invalid.
hatha haTha hQ haTha yoga refers to the physical aspects of Raja yoga, i.e. Asana-s and prANayAma. It literally means "violence, force or obstinacy," "absolute necessity" and stems from the idea of "forcing the mind" to withdraw from objects. Monier-Williams has the additional words: "performed with much self-torture , such as standing on one leg , holding up the arms , inhaling smoke with the head inverted etc.."
hetu hetu hetu cause or reason; the logical reason or argument in a syllogism.
hrasva hrasva ÿSv a short vowel in Sanskrit; literally, short, small, dwarfish, weak etc.
hridaya hRRidaya ùdy heart, seat of feelings and sensations; heart or essence of something; true or divine knowledge.
iccha ichChA #CDa wish, desire, inclination.
idam vritti idam vRRitti #dm! v&iÄ thoughts of objects, concepts, feelings etc., as opposed to aham vRRitti - the thought "I am." See vritti.
iha iha #h in this world; now. (iha loka as opposed to para loka, in the 'next world', i.e. after death).
indriya indriya #iNÔy the number five symbolizing the five senses. The five sense organs are called j~nAnendriya-s and the five "organs" of action are the karmendriya-s.
Isha Upanishad IshopaniShad $zaepin;dœ also known as the Isavasya Upanishad, because its first verse begins: OM IshA vAsyamidam{\m+} sarvaM. IshAvAsya means "pervaded by the lord."
ishta iShTa wished, desired, liked, beloved.
Isvara Ishvara $ñr the Lord; creator of the phenomenal universe; wielder of the force of mAyA. See saguna Brahman.
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012