||the world (earth), mankind etc.
||the waking state of consciousness. The "waker ego" is called vishva. See also, sushupti, svapna, turiya.
||talk, speech, discourse; disputation with 'overbearing and disputed rejoinder'; arguing for the sake of winning, irrespective of who is right. (Three types of disputation: jalpa, vitaNDa, vAda.)
||the simple repetition of a mantra; usually associated with the initial stage of meditation. See mantra.
||birth, the form of existence (as man, animal etc.); genus or species.
||the desire to know (oneself). One who desires to know oneself; a seeker is called a jij~nAsu.
||the identification of the Atman with a body and mind; sometimes spoken of as "the embodied Atman." See atman.
||(mukta is the adjective - liberated; mukti is the noun - liberation) the emotional benefits of Self-knowledge; the 'secondary' gain of enlightenment (dependent upon whether the seeker was fully qualifies according to sAdhana chatuShTaya sampatti. A jIvanmukta is one is both enlightened and who lives with these benefits, which manifest in outward love and compassion.
||another word for Atman, to emphasise that we are referring to the Atman in this 'embodied state', as opposed to the paramAtman, the "supreme Self." See atman.
|jnana (yoga) (note that jnana is often written gyana)
||yoga based on the acquisition of true knowledge (j~nAna means "knowledge") i.e. knowledge of the Self as opposed to mere information about the world of appearances (vidyA). See also bhakti, karma.
||those sections of the Vedas concerned with knowledge, i.e. the Upanishads.
||the full and final knowledge that this Self is all that there is.
||an organ of perception (eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin), plural j~nAnendryAni.
|jnani or jnanin
||j~nAnI or j~nAnin
||literally, one who is endowed with knowledge or intelligence; a sage; often used to refer to one who is enlightened. (j~nAnin is the prAtipadika j~nAnI is the nominative singular pada.) See jnana (yoga).
||one who knows or understands; also sometimes used interchangeably with sAkShin (witness).
||heart, seat of feelings and sensations; heart or essence of something; true or divine knowledge.
||light (of sun, dawn, lightning etc.); fire; light as the divine principle of life, intelligence.
||fabled paradise of Shiva in the Himalayas.
||absolute unity, detachment of the soul from further transmigration, leading to eternal happiness or emancipation.
||the present and final age (Iron age) in a cycle of creation (followed by dissolution - pralaya -and start again). See kalpa.
||one day in the life of Brahma, the Creator; equal to 994 cycles of ages and 4,320,000,000 years.
||made, fabricated, artificial; invented; supposed; inferred.
||desire, longing; one of the four puruShArtha-s. Shankara differentiates this from rAga: rAga is attachment to something one already has whereas kAma is wanting something one doesn't have. (Not to be confused with karma.) See purushartha.
||desirable, agreeable; more usually encountered in the context of 'action' - kAmya karma means actions prompted by desire or the wish for personal benefit, as opposed to nitya karma, done out of a sense of duty.
||part or section, division of a work or book, especially relating to the Vedas.