Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
mAyA - nirupAdhika

flower picture

Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
mAyA mAyA maya literally "magic" or "witchcraft," often personified in Hindu mythology. The "force" used to explain how it is that we come to be deceived into believing that there is a creation with separate objects and living creatures etc. See also avarana and vikshepa. mAyAvin - magician, possessing magical powers.
mayakara mAyAkAra mayakar a maker of magic i.e. a conjurer or magician. See maya.
mimamsa (noun) mimamsaka (adj) mImAMsA mImAMsaka mIma<sa mIma<sk profound thought, reflection, examination. See purvamimamsa, utteramimamsa.
mithya mithyA imWya (adj.) dependently real; literally "incorrectly" or "improperly," used in the sense of "false, untrue." It is, however, more frequently used in the sense of "depending upon something else for its existence." It is ascribed to objects etc., meaning that these are not altogether unreal but not strictly real either i.e. they are our imposition of name and form upon the undifferentiated Self. The noun, as with many Sanskrit adjectives, is formed by adding 'tva' - mithyAtva - dependent reality. See adhyasa.
moha moha maeh delusion, bewilderment, infatuation, preventing the discernment of truth; "love" in its selfish form of love of another person, where something is desired for oneself, as opposed to prema, "pure unselfish love."
moksha mokSha mae] liberation, enlightenment, Self-realization; one of the four puruShArtha-s. Remember that 'o' is pronounced as in 'grow', not as in 'top'.
mudra mudrA muÔa particular positions or inter-twinings of the fingers, commonly practiced in religious worship.
mukha mukha muo opening, mouth; chief, principal, best.
mukti mukti mui´ setting or becoming free, final liberation. (mukta is the adjective - liberated)
mula  mUla  mUl literally a 'root'; basis, foundation, cause, origin, beginning.
mulavidya mUlAvidya mUlaiv* original ignorance.
mumukshu mumukShu mumu]u one for whom the desires to achieve enlightenment is the predominant goal in life; a seeker.
mumukshutva mumukShutva mumu]uTv the desire to achieve enlightenment, to the exclusion of all other desires. See sadhana, chatushtaya sampatti.
Mundaka Upanishad muNDakopaniShad mu{fkaepin;dœ Another one of the 108+ Upanishads and also one of the 10 major ones - but not to be confused with the Mandukya. muNDa means "having a shaved head" and the Upanishad is so called because every one who comprehends its sacred doctrine is "shorn" of (i.e. liberated from) all error. See Upanishad.
muni muni muin sage, seer, saint, ascetic, monk etc.
murta mUrta mUtR manifest, material, embodied.
naimittika naimittika nEimiÄk occasional, special. naimittika karma are those occasional duties that we have to perform, such as helping a neighbor who has helped one in the past.
naisarga, naisargika naisarga naisargika nEsgR nEsigRk innate, natural.
Naiyayika naiyAyika nEyaiyk a follower of the nyAya philosophy.
nama-rupa nAmarUpa namêp name and form.
namas namas nms! bow, obeisance, reverential salutation. namaskAra - the exclamatation 'namas'.
nana nAnA nana differently, variously, distinctly; (used as adj. various, different, distinct from)
nanatva nAnAtva nanaTv difference, variety, manifoldness.
naraka naraka nrk hell. (Also pAtAla.)
nashita nAshita naizt destroyed, lost.
nastika nAstika naiStk atheist, unbeliever; usually refers to one who does not recognize the authority of the Vedas.
neti neti neit not this (na - not; iti - this). From the bRRihadAraNyaka upaniShad (2.3.6). Used by the intellect whenever it is thought that the Self might be some "thing" observed e.g. body, mind etc. The Self cannot be anything that is seen, thought or known. See Brihadaranyaka, Upanishad.
nididhyasana nididhyAsana inidXyasn meditating on what has been directly seen at the time of teaching until there is total conviction. The third stage of the classical spiritual path. See also shravana and manana. It is to be understood as "right apprehension" (vij~nAna); recapitulating or going over the teaching rather than simply mechanical japa, as with dhyAna.
nidra nidrA inÔa sleep.
nimitta nimitta inimÄ literally the "instrumental or efficient cause" but normally used (nimitta kAraNa) as meaning the latter.
nirguna nirguNa inguR[ "without qualities"; usually referring to Brahman and meaning that it is beyond any description or thought. Since there is only Brahman, any word would imply limitation or duality. See Brahman, saguna, Isvara.
nirmukta nirmukta inmuR´ free from every attachment.
nirnaya nirNaya in[Ry (in logic) deduction, inference, conclusion; application of a conclusive argument; discussion, consideration.
nirodha nirodha inraex restraint.
nirupadhika nirupAdhika inépaixk without attributes or qualities. nirupAdhika adhyAsa is superimposition as of the snake on the rope, as opposed to sopAdhika adhyAsa e.g. the sunrise, which is still seen even when the mistake is realized.
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012