||being indifferent towards or even having a loathing for worldly objects.
||(referring to samAdhi) without doubts about one's identity with the one Self. See savikalpa, samadhi, vikalpa; also means 'free from differences or change', not having any alternative.
||knowledge not depending upon or derived from the senses, indeterminate knowledge.
||unchanged, unchangeable, changeless, uniform.
||making or showing no difference. nirvisheShaNa - attributeless.
||one who has come to a conclusion, formed a certain opinion; decided, positive; certainty; also used in sense of 'wise people'.
||contradiction, negation, denial.
||desireless, disinterested. niShkAma karma is so-called "right action," performed in response to the need, neither selfishly nor unselfishly - it generates no saMskAra.
||committed or devoted to; having a basis or grounding in. niShThA is the noun, meaning firmness, steadiness, devotion.
||eternal. It also means "ordinary, usual, necessary, obligatory." It is used in this latter sense in connection with action. nitya karma are those daily duties that we have to perform, such as looking after one's children.
||giving up, abstaining, renouncing (esp. of desires in the path to enlightenment - nivRRitti mArga).
||restraining, controlling; any fixed rule or law; necessity. There are five niyama-s in rAja yoga.
||logical argument; literally, "that into which a thing goes back," a "standard" or "rule"; one of the 6 classical Indian philosophical systems, whose principal exponent was Gautama in the 3rd Century BC. So called because the system "goes into" all physical and metaphysical subjects in a very logical manner.
||refers to logical and inferential material based upon the Vedas, of which the most well known is the brahma sUtra of Vyasa (nyAya can also mean method, axiom, logical argument etc.). See pramana, prasthana-traya, smriti, sruti.
||foot, part, quarter. The Mandukya Upanishad refers to the four pAda as the three states of consciousness plus turIya. A better translation of pAda, here, is 'facet'. (Not to be confused with pada.)
||word (as opposed to padArtha - meaning or thing corresponding to the meaning); portion of a verse or line of a stanza; also trace, mark, sign etc.; also position, rank or status. (Not to be confuse with pAda - the 'fourth', 'quarter' or 'facet' e.g. MU)
||the meaning of a word; the thing, material object or person that corresponds with that meaning.
||one of the four principal disciples of Shankara.
||subject of the discussion, proposition to be proved.
||the five elements, viz. earth - pRRithivI; water - ap; fire - tejas; air - vAyu; space or ether - AkAsha.
||literally means "fifteen" because it has this many chapters - a book written by Vidyaranya (vidyAraNya), based upon the Upanishads. It discusses many Advaitic truths and uses some original metaphors to illustrate the concepts.
||the five sheaths.
||a commentary by Padmapada on Shankara's commentary on the first part of the brahma sUtra.
||literally "wise" as an adjective or "scholar, teacher, philosopher" as a noun and used in this way in the scriptures. However, it has come to mean someone who knows a lot of theory but does very little practice. We sometimes use the word "pundit" in our language - the word "sophist" would probably be a good synonym.
||literally "bad" or "wicked" but used in the sense of the "sin" that accrues (according to the theory of karma) from performing "bad" actions, i.e. those done with a selfish motive. See also punya.
||the first stage in the production of sound. Also means beyond, distant, remote, highest, supreme; could be translated as "transcendent."
||chief, highest, most prominent, best etc.
|paramartha (noun); paramarthika (adj.)
||the highest truth or reality; the noumenal as opposed to the phenomenal world of appearances (vyavahAra). See pratibhasa and vyavahara.
||usually translated as the "supreme Self" as opposed to the Atman in the embodied state, the jIvAtman. Swami Dayananda insists that it actually means "limitless" in the sense of not limited by time or place and therefore changeless. See atman.