Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
paramparA - prameya

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Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
parampara paramparA prMpra literally "proceeding from one to another"; "guru paramparA" refers to the tradition of guru - disciple passing on wisdom through the ages. See also sampradaya.
paratantra paratantra prtÙ dependent on or subject to another (opposite svatantra).
parechcha parechChA preCDa relating to the desires of others - see prarabdha.
paribhasa paribhAshA pirÉaza speech, discourse, words; an explanatory rule or general definition; a rule or maxim which teaches the proper interpretation or application of other rules. (e.g. vedAnta paribhAshA of dharmarAja adhvarindra).
paricchinna parichchinna piri½Ú cut-off, divided, detached, confined, limited, circumscribed.
parinama pariNAma pir[am literally "change, transformation into"; encountered in the context of a material cause in which the effect is a transformation from its cause as opposed to simply distinguishable from, e.g. butter made from milk as opposed to cloth made from cotton.
parinama vada pariNAma vAda pir[am vad the doctrine of evolution as proposed by sAMkhya philosophy.
paripurna paripUrNa pirpU[R completely filled or covered with; accomplished, perfect, whole, complete.
paroksha parokSha prae] remote, mysterious, invisible, hidden (also pArokShya); opposite of pratyakSha.
pashyanti pashyantI pZyNtI seeing; the second of the four stages of sound production. Could be translated as "visualization," from the verb pash, meaning "to see."
patala pAtAla patal hell. (Also naraka.)
Patanjali pata~njali ptÃil philosopher, author of the "Yoga Sutras" and responsible for aShTA~Nga or rAja yoga.
phala phala )l fruit; often used in the context of the consequences that necessarily follow as a result of action. See karma phala. It is also used in respect of the emotional benefits of self-knowledge - j~nAna phala or jIvanmukta.
pluta pluta Plut a lengthened vowel in Sanskrit (sounded for 3 or more mAtrA-s or measures).
Prabhakara prabhAkara àÉakr founder of an offshoot ot the purva mImAmsa school of philosophy.
pradhana pradhAna àxan most important or essential part of anything; primary matter or nature; supreme or universal soul; equals prakRRiti and is the cause of the universe according to sAMkyha.
prajna praj~nA à}a (verb) to know or understand, find out, perceive or learn; (noun) wisdom, intelligence, knowledge. Not to be confused with prAj~na below.
prajna prAj~na àa} the "deep sleep ego" in the deep sleep state of consciousness, suShupti. Literally, "wise, clever" (adj.) or "a wise man" or "intelligence dependent on individuality." See also visva, taijasa.
prajnana praj~nAna à}an consciousness.
prakarana prakaraNa àkr[ subject, topic, treatise etc. but especially opening chapter or prologue.
prakarana grantha prakaraNa grantha àkr[ ¢Nw this is the term used to refer to authoritative commentaries on the scripture but which are not part of the prasthAna traya. It is frequently used in respect of the works attributed to Shankara such as upadesha sAhasrI, vivekachUDAmaNi etc. The word grantha literally means "tying or stringing together" though can itself mean composition or treatise.
prakriti prakRRiti àk«it literally the original or natural form or condition of anything; generally used to refer to what we would call "nature."
prakriya prakriyA ài³ya a methodology of teaching; literally a chapter (esp. the introductory chapter of a work).
pralaya pralaya àly dissolution, destruction, annihilation, especially relating to the destruction of the universe at the end of a kalpa. See kalpa.
prama pramA àma true knowledge, basis or foundation.
pramana pramANa àma[ valid means for acquiring knowledge. There are 6 of these in Vedanta: - perception (pratyakSha), inference (anumAna), scriptural or verbal testimony (shabda or Agama shruti), analogy (upamAna), presumption (arthApatti) and non-apprehension (anupalabdhi). The first three are the major ones referred to by Shankara.
pramatri pramAtRRi àmat& the subject of knowledge obtained via a pramANa; authority, one who has a correct notion or idea.
prameya prameya àmey the object of knowledge obtained via a pramANa; also "thing to be proven" or "topic to be discussed."
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012