Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
pramiti - pUrvapakSha

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Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
pramiti pramiti àimit correct notion, right conception, knowledge gained or established by pramANa.
prana prANa àa[ literally the "breath of life"; the vital force in the body with which we identify in the "vital sheath."
pranamayakosha prANamayakosha àa[mykaez the sheath made of breath (one of the "five Coverings" that surround our true essence).
pranava praNava à[v mystical or sacred symbol (OM); OM is usually called praNava shabda, though either word separately can also be use with the same meaning. praNu means "to make a humming or droning sound." It is also said that praNava means 'ideal name'. It is the 'ideal name' for brahman because it represents both the saguNa aspects (in the actual word OM) and the nirguNa aspects (in the silence that follows).
pranayama prANAyAma àa[ayam usually understood to mean control of breathing in advanced yoga techniques or as a prelude to meditation. According to Swami Chinmayananda, however, it does not mean this but relates to the five "departments" of active life: prANayAma, pratyAhAra, nitya-anitya-viveka, japa and samAdhi.
pranidhana praNidhAna ài[xan meditation on/contemplation of/devotion to Ishvara. One of the five niyama-s of rAja yoga.
prapancha prapa~ncha àp the visible world; appearance, diversity, phenomenon.
prapta prApta àaÝ attained, acquired, accomplished. prAptasya prApta is gaining something which has already been gained (as oppose to aprAptasya prApta - gaining something that one does not have); the expression is used of mokSha, enlightenment.
prarabdha prArabdha àarBx This literally means "begun" or "undertaken." It is the fruit of all of our past action that is now having its effect. This is one of the three types of saMskAra (see agamin, sanchita, sanskara). Also, there are three types of prArabdha karma - ichChA, anichChA and parechChA (personally desired, without desire and due to others' desire).
prasada prasAda àsad refers to the food offered to a god (idol) or that left by a spiritual teacher which may now be eaten by the disciple as a token; (more generally) clearness, brighteness, calmness, tranquility, serenity, graciousness. 
prasthana-traya prasthAna traya àSwan Çy prasthAna means "system" or "course" in the sense of a journey; traya just means "threefold." It refers to the three sources of knowledge of the Self (shabda), nyAya prasthAna, shruti and smRRiti. See nyaya prasthana, shabda, shruti, smriti.
pratama prathama àwm first, foremost; earliest, primary, original, prior, former; intial, chief, principal.
pratibandhaka  pratibandhaka  àitbNxk impediment, obstacle (usuaually in relation to gaining j~nAna phalam).
pratibhasa (noun)pratibhasika (adj.) pratibhAsa prAtibhAsika àitÉas àaitÉaisk appearing or occurring to the mind, existing only in appearance, an illusion. See paramartha, vyavahara.
pratibimba pratibimba àitibMb a reflection. In logic, bimba is the object itself, with the pratibimba being the counterpart with which it is compared.
pratibimba-vada pratibimba vAda àitibMb vad the theory that the jIva is a reflection of the atman, similar to a the reflection of an object in a mirror (bimba).
pratijna pratij~nA àit}a (in logic) an assertion or proposition to be proved.
pratipadya - pratipadaka sambandha pratipAdya pratipAdaka sambandha àitpa* àitpadk sMbNx refers to that type of knowledge where the knowledge itself brings about the goal without the need for any action. pratipAdya means "that which is to be explained or revealed"; pratipAdaka means "that which reveals, explaining or demonstrating"; sambandha means "relationship."
pratiyogin pratiyogin àityaeign! any object dependent upon another and not existing without it.
pratyabhijna pratyabhij~nA àTyiÉ}a recognition.
pratyagatman pratyagAtman àTygaTmn! the individual soul.
pratyahara pratyAhAra àTyahar withdrawal of the senses from external objects.
pratyaksha pratyakSha àTy] "present before the eyes, clear, distinct etc." but particularly "direct perception or apprehension" as a valid source of knowledge. Opposite of pArokSha, hidden. See pramana.
pratyaya pratyaya àTyy belief, firm conviction, certainty; basis or cause of anything; experience or cognition e.g. Atmapratyaya - the 'I' experience.
pravritti pravRRitti àv&iÄ active life, following one's desires (pravRRitti mArga as opposed to the path to enlightenment - nivRRitti mArga).
prayaschitta prAyashchitta àayiíÄ atonement, expiation, amends, penance.
prayojana prayojana àyaejn motive or purpose; utility.
prema prema àem love, in its pure, unselfish form (as opposed to moha).
preyas preyas àeys! the 'pleasant' as opposed to the 'good'; more agreeable, more desired.
prithak pRRithak p&wkœ apart, separately, differently.
prithivi pRRithivI p&iwvI earth - one of the five elements or pa~nchabhUta. Associated with smell.
priya priya iày love, kindness, pleasure.
puja pUjA pUja honor, worship, respect, reverence.
punarapi punarapi punrip ever again (punar - again, once more, repeatedly; api - further emphasis). As in punarapi jananam, punarapi maraNam to indicate saMsAra (janana = birth, maraNa = death).
punya puNya pu{y literally "good" or "virtuous"; used to refer to the "reward" that accrues to us (according to the theory of karma) through the performing of unselfish actions. See also papa.
purna pUrNa pU[R full, complete, satisfied, perfect.
purusha puruSha pué; person (usually male), spirit.
purushartha puruShArtha pué;awR The general meaning of this term is "any object of human pursuit" but it is used here in the sense of human (i.e. self) effort to overcome "fate," the fruit of one's past actions. The four classical pursuits are kAma, artha, dharma and mokSha. puruShArtha-labha is fulfillment of those pursuits. See karma, sanskara.
purusha-tantra puruSha tantra pué; tÙ subjective, the result of 'doing' (as opposed to vastu-tantra). See also kartRRi-tantra.
purva pUrva pUvR former, preceding.
Purva mimamsa pUrva mImAMsA pUvR mIma<sa the philosophical system based upon the first part of the Vedas and attributed to Jaimini. Mainly concerned with enquiring into the nature of dharma or right action. See mimamsa, uttaramimamsa.
purvapaksha pUrvapakSha pUvRp] the first objection to an assertion in any discussion or, more generally, the "objector" in a debate.
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012