Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
satya - shiShya

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Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
satya satya sTy true, real; satyam - truth. Also one of the yama-s - truthfulness, sincerity.
saucha shaucha zaEc purity of mind, integrity. One of the five niyama-s in Raja yoga.
savikalpa savikalpa sivkLp (referring to samadhi) still "with" doubts about one's identity with the one Self. See nirvikalpa, samadhi, vikalpa; also means 'differentiated', possessing variety or distinctions.
savikalpaka savikalpaka sivkLpk knowledge depending upon or derived from the senses; determinate knowledge.
savikara savikAra sivkar  'with change', as opposed to nirvikAra - used of anAtman as opposed to Atman.
shabda shabda zBd scriptural or verbal testimony. See pramana, nyaya prasthana, prasthana-traya, sruti, smriti.
shakha-chandra-nyaya shAkhA chandra nyAya zaoa cNÔ Nyay the rule of the moon on a bough. Relates to the situation where one thing (the moon) is effectively pointed out by its relationship to something else (the bough).
shakti shakti zi´ power, strength (especially in connection with a deity).
shama shama zm literally tranquility, absence of passion but more usually translated as mental discipline or self-control; one of the shamAdi ShaTka sampatti or "six qualities" that form part of Shankara's chatuShTaya sampatti. See chatushtaya sampatti, shamadi shatka sampatti.
shamadi shatka sampatti shamAdi ShaTka sampatti zmaid ;qœk sMpiÄ the six qualities that form part of Shankara's chatuShTaya sampatti. These are shama, dama, uparati, titikShA, samAdhAna and shraddhA.
Shankara shaMkara z<kr 8th Century Indian philosopher responsible for firmly establishing the principles of Advaita. Though he died at an early age (32?), he commented on a number of major Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutras, as well as being attributed as the author of a number of famous works, such as Atmabodha, Bhaja Govindam and Vivekachudamani.
Shankaracharya shaMkarAchArya z<kracayR The title given to one of the four teachers (see acharya) following the tradition in India established by Shankara (see Shankara). He set up four positions, North, South, East and West, to be held by realized men, who would take on the role of teacher and could be consulted by anyone having problems or questions of a spiritual nature.
shanti shAnti zaiNt peace, tranquility.
sharana sharaNa zr[ protection, refuge, asylum. Also used in the context of 'surrender'.
sharira sharIra zrIr one's body (divided into gross, subtle and causal aspects); literally "that which is easily destroyed or dissolved."
shastra shAstra zaô order, teaching, instruction; any sacred book or composition that has divine authority.
shastriya anumana shAstrIya anumAna zaôIy Anuman inference based upon the material contained in the scriptures.
Shiva shiva izv the 'auspicious one' - the third god of the Hindu trinity (Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the preserver and Shiva, the destroyer). Happy, fortunate; liberation, final emancipation.
shloka shloka ðaek a stanza (verse), usually from the scriptures. Pedantically, it refers to a specific meter.
shraddha shraddhA ïÏa faith, trust or belief (in the absence of direct personal experience) - the student needs this initially in respect of what he is told by the guru or reads in the scriptures; one of the "six qualities" that form part of Shankara's chatuShTaya sampatti. See chatushtaya sampatti, shamAdi shhaTka sampatti.
shravana shravaNa ïv[ listening to the teachings (of such works as the Upanishads) unfolded by the guru; first of the three key stages in the classical spiritual path. See also manana, nididhyasana.
shreyas shreyas ïeys! the 'good' as opposed to the 'pleasant'; most excellent, best, auspicious.
shrotriya shrotriya ïaeiÇy someone (usually a brAhmaNa) who is well-versed in the scriptures.
shruti shruti ïuit refers to the Vedas, incorporating the Upanishads. Literally means "hearing" and refers to the belief that the books contain orally transmitted, sacred wisdom from the dawn of time. See nyaya prasthana, pramana, smriti.
shubhecha shubhechChA zuÉeCDa good desire; the initial impulse that start us on a spiritual search. shubha means "auspicious," "good (in a moral sense)" and ichChA means "wish," "desire".
shuddhi shuddhi zuiÏ cleansing, purification as in chitta-shuddhi, purification of the mind.
shudra shUdra zUÔ the fourth and lowest of the traditional four castes in India, their purpose said to be to serve the three higher castes.
shunya shunya zuNy empty, void as in the Buddhist belief of shunya vAda.
siddhanta siddhAnta isÏaNt final end or purpose; conclusion of an argument; fixed or established teaching on a particular topic, e.g. advaita siddhAnta is the strict teaching according to Shankara.
sisya shiShya iz:y pupil, scholar, disciple.
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012