Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Dictionary of common Sanskrit spiritual words
vichAra - vivarta

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Note that words appear in order of the Roman alphabet, not the Sanskrit alphabet.

English ITRANS Sanskrit Meaning
vichara vichAra ivcar consideration, reflection, deliberation, investigation. vichAra mArga is translated as "Direct Path".
videha videha ivdeh bodiless, incorporeal, dead; videha mukti is deliverance by release from the body (death).
vidhi vidhi ivix formula, injunction, rule, precept, law; any prescribed act, rite or ceremony; mode of conduct or behavior.
vidya vidyA iv*a knowledge, science, learning, philosophy (as opposed to j~nAna, which rather refers to direct self-knowledge. Atma j~nAna). Atma-vidyA or brahma-vidyA is the objective knowledge of the Self taught by the scriptures and guru.
Vidyaranya vidyAraNya iv*ar{y author of the Panchadashi.
vijati vijAti ivjait literally belonging to another caste or tribe; dissimilar or heterogeneous.
vijnana vij~nAna iv}an discerning, understanding, comprehending; "right apprehension" in the case of nididhyAsana as opposed to dhyAna. vij~nAna vAda is the philosophical theory of Idealism.
vijnanamayakosha vij~nAnamayakosha iv}anmykaez the intellectual sheath (one of the five "coverings" that surround our true essence).
vikalpa vikalpa ivkLp doubt, uncertainty or indecision.
vikara vikAra ivkar transformation, modification, change of form or nature. Also vikAratva - the state of change; and vikAravat - undergoing changes.
vikarma vikarma ivkmR prohibited, unlawful - actions that must be avoided.
vikshepa vikShepa iv]ep the "projecting" power of mAyA. In the rope-snake metaphor, this superimposes the image of the snake upon the rope. See avarana, maya.
vilakshana vilakShaNa ivl][ different from; not admitting of exact definition.
viparita viparIta ivprIt reversed, inverted, perverse, wrong; contrary; false, untrue. viparIta lakShaNa is using a word in the opposite sense, i.e sarcasm.
viparyasa viparyAsa ivpyaRs imagining what is unreal or false to be real or true; error backed by ignorance; self-ignorance plus self-delusion.
viparyaya viparyaya ivpyRy error, misapprehension, mixing up the nature of one thing with another or mistaking something to be the opposite of what it actually is (literally reversed, inverted).
viraj or virat virAj or virAT ivraj! ivraqœ gross, macrocosmic equivalent of vishva (vaishvAnara) at the level of creation.
virama virAma ivram In Sanskrit, the diagonal mark underneath a consonant to indicate that it is not to be sounded with a vowel after it. The literal meaning is "cessation, termination or end." (All consonants are sounded with 'a' by default, unless indicated otherwise.) A consonant with such a mark is called a halanta consonant. (The term also refers to the single vertical mark to indicate the end of a sentence or single line of a verse of poetry.)
virodha virodha ivraex opposition hostility; a (logical) contradiction or inconsistency.
visarga visarga ivsgR this literally means "sending out" or "emission." In Sanskrit, it is represented as aH but is not actually a letter and does not occur on its own. Its effect is to add a brief, breathing out sound after the vowel sound associated with a consonant; represented by two dots placed to the right of the associated letter.
vishaya viShaya iv;y object of sensory perception; any subject or topic; the subject of an argument. (not to be confused with vishaya, with a palatal 'sh', meaning 'doubt or uncertainty). Adjective - viShayika.
vishesha (noun);visheshana (adj) visheSha visheShaNa ivze; ivze;[ literally "distinction" or "difference between"; particular or specific. The Vaisheshika philosophy believes that the material universe is made up of nine substances, each of which is "essentially different" from any other. See Vaisheshika.adjective - distinguishing, specifying, qualifiying.
visheshya visheShya ivze:y (noun) that which is to be distinguished (from something else).
vishishta vishiShTa ivizò distinguished, particular, excellent (as in yoga vashiShTa).
vishishtadvaita vishiShTAdvaita ivizòaÖEt qualified non-dualism; belief that God and the Atman are distinct but not separate. Ramanuja is the scholar most often associated with this philosophy. See advaita, dvaita.
vishvarupa vishvarUpa ivñêp manifold, various.
visva vishva ivñ the "waker ego" in the waking state of consciousness, jagrat. Also sometimes referred to as vaishvAnara. See also taijasa, prajna.
vitanda vitaNDa ivt{f cavil, fallacious controversy, perverse or frivolous argument, criticism; argument purely for the sake of winning the point (three types of disputation: jalpa, vitaNDa, vAda).
vivarana vivaraNa ivvr[ literally "explanation" or "interpretation"; name of one of the two schools of Advaita. The other school is the vAcaspati or bhAmati school.
vivarta vivarta ivvtR an apparent or illusory form; unreality caused by avidyA.
Page last updated: 10-Jul-2012