Advaita Vision

Advaita for the 21st Century

Critical analysis of vedAnta paribhAShA Part XXIV
Dr. K. Sadananda

flower picture

Part XXIV - Application to Illusions

The question to be addressed next concerns prAtibhAsika objects, such as the snake that is seen where there is really a rope or the silver seen in a shell. Because of the limited data from the senses, the attributive knowledge which is gained about the object is not sufficient for correct cognition. The perceptuality condition of the object is met and therefore, even when there are errors in the cognition, the cognized object is recognized based on the attributes which are available to the mind. The error occurs in the recognition process from memory. (The cognitive conditions or perceptuality criteria are applicable even in the case of illusory perception and therefore VP says they are not restrictive or narrow.) Hence, in summary, an object is said to be cognized by perception when: (1) it is cable of being perceived, (2) it has no independent existence apart from the consciousness associated with the subject or knower, and (3) it has the limiting adjunct of a mental state or vRRitti in the form of the object (attributive content of the object).

In forming the vRRitti-s or mental states, nyAya philosophers have considered various other relations between the substantives and their attributes and how the sense organs relate to these in grasping and forming mental states. We have already discussed some aspects of these, such as saMyoga and samavAya. (Additional relations are considered such as saMyukta-tAdAtmya, saMyukta abhinna-tAdAtmya, saMnikarSha, etc. These are involved in the production of mental states of objects with attributes that are revealed by reflected consciousness. From the standpoint of advaita, all are superimpositions on the all pervading, conscious, existent entity – Brahman.)

Next we will consider the components of the mind.

Proceed to the next essay.

Other Essays in this Section (Perception):
01. Introduction Part 1. 28. Perception at the Individual Level.
02. Introduction Part 2. 29. Perception at the Cosmic Level.
03. Analysis of Time and Space. 30. Summary so far.
04. Knowledge is Continuous. 31. vAchArambhanaNaM.
05. Whatever you perceive is Brahman! 32. Re-examination of the Perceptual Process Pt.1.
06. Attributes and Substantive. 33. Re-examination of the Perceptual Process Pt.2.
07. Mechanics of Perception. 34. Re-examination of the Perceptual Process Pt.3.
08. Some Objections. 35. Re-examination of the Perceptual Process Pt.4.
09. Internal Perceptions. 36. Re-examination of the Perceptual Process Pt.5.
10. The Criteria for Cognition. 37. Nature of ‘ego’ and Self-realization.
11. Unity of limiting consciousness for perception. 38. Erroneous Perceptions Pt. 1.
12. Internal Perceptions (cont.) 39. Erroneous Perceptions Pt. 2.
13. Some Clarifications Regarding Internal Perception. 40. Analysis of Error - Part 1: khyAti vAda-s.
14. Some Clarifications Regarding Character. 41. Analysis of error - Part 2: vedAnta paribhAshA analysis.
15. Question related to jAti [species]. 42. Analysis of error - Part 3: naiyAyika objection.
16. Relation between an attribute and its substantive. 43. Creation as Transformation.
17. brahman is the changeless substantive. 44. Questions on ‘Creation as Transformation’.
18. Perceptuality of Objects: Definition vindicated (part 1). 45. Ontological Status of 'This'.
19. Perceptuality of Objects: Definition vindicated (part 2). 46. Two Layers of Ignorance.
20. Questions related to Perceptuality (part 1). 47. Conclusion of silver-nacre analysis.
21. Questions related to Perceptuality (part 2). 48. Perception in Dream.
22. Mind as Subject. 49. Negating false perception.
23. Self-realization. 50. Counterpositive.
24. Application to Illusions. 51. Summary of Mechanism of Perceptual Knowledge.
25. Determinate and indeterminate perceptions (part 1). 52. vyAvahArika vs. prAtibhAsika Pt. 1.
26. Determinate and indeterminate perceptions (part 2). 53. vyAvahArika vs. prAtibhAsika Pt. 2.
27. The position of vishiShTAdvaita.  
The next section in this series continues with the pramANa of anumAna (inference).

Return to list of topics in Discourses by Teachers and Writers.
See the list sorted by Topic.
See the list sorted by Author.

Page last updated: 08-Jul-2012